Promote the comprehensive development of vocational training in vocational schools, serve and promote employment and entrepreneurship-the head of the Vocational Education and Adult Education Department of the Ministry of Education answers reporters' "Action Plan for the Comprehensive Development of Vocational Training in Vocational Schools to Promote Employment and Entrepreneurship"
A few days ago, the General Office of the Ministry of Education and other fourteen departments jointly issued the "Action Plan for the Comprehensive Development of Vocational Training in Vocational Colleges to Promote Employment and Entrepreneurship (2019-2022)" (hereinafter referred to as the "Action Plan"). The head of the Vocational Education and Adult Education Department of the Ministry of Education answered reporters' questions on related issues.
Q: Please introduce the background and significance of the "Action Plan"?
Answer: The Party Central Committee and the State Council attach great importance to the training and training of technical and skilled personnel. The Nineteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China clearly stated that "professional vocational skills training should be carried out on a large scale." In this year's "Government Work Report", Premier Li Keqiang proposed that 100 billion yuan should be taken from the balance of the unemployment insurance fund for more than 15 million employees' skills upgrading and job transfer training. The "Notice of the General Office of the State Council on Printing and Distributing Action Plans for Vocational Skills Promotion (2019-2021)" specifies specific measures and requires the promotion of vocational colleges to expand the scale of training. The "National Vocational Education Reform Implementation Plan" proposes "to improve the modern vocational education system that places equal emphasis on academic education and training" and "to carry out high-quality vocational training." All these have put forward fundamental requirements and new requirements for vocational schools to train urban and rural workers.
It is the statutory responsibility of vocational colleges to implement both diploma education and training. In recent years, the framework of the modern vocational education system has been fully established, and its ability to serve economic and social development and its social appeal have been continuously enhanced. However, the phenomenon of "one leg long and one short leg" in diploma education and training in vocational colleges is common. There is also a lack of initiative of schools and teachers, insufficient curriculum and resources, insufficient pertinence and applicability, and training for society. Problems such as weak teachers' practical teaching ability are still the weak link in the development of vocational education.
Therefore, promoting vocational colleges to open their schools and provide extensive training to all urban and rural workers is not only conducive to supporting and promoting employment and entrepreneurship, but also to improving the quality of personnel training and school running capacity of schools. Pay great attention and speed up implementation.
Q: Please introduce the drafting process of the Action Plan.
Answer: The formulation of the Action Plan is divided into four stages.
The first is research and drafting. In March 2019, the Ministry of Education organized a seminar for representatives of local education administrations, vocational colleges, and teaching and research units to summarize successful experiences and practices in various places, sort out outstanding issues, determine the basic framework of the document, and form a preliminary draft of the Action Plan.
The second is field investigation. In April 2019, the document drafting team went to Zhejiang, Hunan, and Sichuan Province to conduct special investigations. Field visits to vocational colleges, enterprises, and training institutions, to learn more about vocational colleges' training for society, school-enterprise cooperation, and actual needs of enterprises.
The third is to seek opinions. Symposiums were held many times to solicit the opinions and suggestions of education administration departments, vocational colleges, and industry enterprise representatives on vocational training. Seek opinions from relevant departments and units.
The fourth is to modify and improve. Comprehensively collated and studied the opinions and suggestions of relevant parties one by one, and communicated with relevant departments and bureaus several times, repeatedly revised and improved, and finally formed the "Action Plan".
Q: What are the main contents of the Action Plan?
Answer: The Action Plan is divided into 3 parts and 16 articles. The first part is the general requirements, including the guiding ideology, basic principles, and goals of action. The second part is action measures, focusing on extensively carrying out skills training for enterprise employees, actively carrying out employment and entrepreneurship training for key groups, vigorously carrying out reemployment training for the unemployed, providing vocational guidance and employment services, promoting training resource construction and model reform, Ten specific aspects have been proposed in ten aspects, including strengthening the construction of training teachers, supporting multi-party cooperation to jointly build training and training bases, improving the incentive policies for vocational colleges to train, improving the support and encouragement policies for trainees, and establishing training evaluation and assessment mechanisms. . The third part is the action requirements, which puts forward requirements for the implementation of the Action Plan by relevant departments and vocational colleges in various places, emphasizing the need to strengthen organizational leadership, strengthen implementation management, and focus on propaganda and guidance.
Q: What are the general requirements of the Action Plan for vocational schools to carry out vocational training?
A: The "Action Plan" emphasizes the need to take Xi Jinping's thoughts of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era as a guide, conscientiously implement the decision-making and deployment of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, increase the initiative of colleges and teachers, mobilize the enthusiasm of trainees, and promote the development of all members of society Large-scale, high-quality employment and entrepreneurship training provides strong support for achieving higher quality and full employment. At the same time, the Action Plan also puts forward four basic principles: focusing on effectiveness, promoting employment, expanding scale, improving quality, coordinating resources, coordinating advancement, improving mechanisms, and stimulating motivation.
The action target set out in the Action Plan is to make vocational colleges an important position for employment and entrepreneurship training by 2022, and basically form a vocational education school structure that places equal emphasis on academic education and training. Vocational colleges undertake subsidized training on a large scale each year; focus on cultivating a number of high-level training bases built by in-depth cooperation and cooperation between schools and enterprises; build a large number of training resources and typical training projects, and train a large number of people who can simultaneously undertake academic education and Teachers on training tasks.
Q: Can you elaborate on the key tasks and action measures proposed in the Action Plan?
A: As mentioned earlier, the Action Plan proposes specific action measures from ten aspects. The first is to conduct extensive skills training for enterprise employees. Promote vocational colleges and enterprises to focus on key areas and vigorously carry out new technology skills training. Support vocational colleges and enterprises to jointly build corporate universities, employee training centers, and continuing education bases. Intensify the training of employees in difficult enterprises during their job transfers.
The second is to actively carry out employment and entrepreneurship training for key groups. Encourage vocational colleges to actively develop employment and entrepreneurship training programs for key groups and carry out technical skills training in areas where talent is scarce. Strengthen training to adapt to the characteristics of persons with disabilities. Encourage agricultural-related vocational colleges to send them to the countryside to further develop skills to help the poor.
The third is to vigorously carry out reemployment training for the unemployed. Support vocational colleges for unemployed people, develop training programs with short development cycles, high demand, and easy employment, so that unemployed people can master a skill Highlight the features of help, teaching, and assistance, and strive to achieve training as recruitment, training as employment.
The fourth is to do a good job of career guidance and employment services. Strengthen training on employment related laws and regulations, professional ethics, professional literacy, job search skills , and basic skills. Promote diversified employment services jointly by vocational colleges, human resource service agencies and industry enterprises.
The fifth is to promote the construction of training resources and reform of models. Guide vocational colleges to improve the design and development capabilities of training programs and enhance the pertinence of training program design. Develop hierarchical training package and digital training resources. Carry out fragmentation, flexibility, and real-time training, and send the training to the workshop and the doorstep of the masses.
The sixth is to strengthen the training of teachers. Targeted training for professional teachers, training a large number of teachers adapted to the needs of "dual posts", so that teachers can control the "two podiums" of schools and enterprises. The amount of training service hours and training effectiveness are taken as important contents of teachers' performance evaluation.
Seventh, support multi-party cooperation to build training and training bases. Support vocational colleges to build a number of standardized training and training bases on the basis of existing training bases. Support school-enterprise cooperation to build a number of high-level employment and entrepreneurship training bases.
Eighth is to improve the incentive policies for vocational colleges to carry out training. Support vocational colleges to carry out subsidized training. For vocational colleges with heavy tasks, the required total amount of performance wages shall be increased in a timely manner based on the original total amount. Lean to the front-line teachers who undertake training tasks during internal distribution. Vocational colleges are allowed to incorporate a certain percentage of training revenue into school public funding.
The ninth is to improve the support and encouragement policies of trainees. Fully implement the vocational training subsidy and living cost subsidy policy to ensure that qualified trainees should enjoy it. Speed up the pilot of the 1 + X certificate system, and encourage trainees to obtain vocational skill level certificates and vocational qualification certificates. Qualified participants are encouraged to receive academic education, and the training results are exchanged for credits in accordance with regulations.
Tenth is to establish a training evaluation and assessment mechanism. Take the development of training for the society as an important indicator of the evaluation and evaluation of school running ability of vocational colleges and an important basis for vocational education project arrangements. Evaluate and supervise the development of vocational schools.
Q: After the "Action Plan" is released, how will it be promoted and implemented?
A: Next, in order to implement the Action Plan, we will focus on the following tasks:
The first is to refine the implementation plan. All localities are required to formulate implementation plans, annual plans, decompose tasks gradually, clarify goals, implement responsibilities, determine timetables and task books, and regularly report on the progress of training in vocational schools in the region to the Ministry of Education.
The second is to strengthen supervision and guidance. The Ministry of Education will establish an expert committee with relevant departments to supervise, inspect and track the implementation of local and vocational colleges, and summarize and actively promote typical practices and effective experiences.
The third is to focus on research and publicity. Carry out research on vocational training related projects, and do a good job of collecting training data by industry sector and training target. Collect and publicize the excellent cases and typical training projects carried out by vocational colleges, and guide local and vocational colleges to do a good job of vocational training.